Tag Archives: Recipe

Stout Experiment – Brewing Details and Results

The recipe target the creation of 5 liters of 10 °P (1.040) wort, post boil.  I used a “brew in a bag” process, though unlike some I choose to mash with only a portion of the water and add the remainder as a sparge or rinse.  My default water to grain ratio is 3.0 liters per kilogram, which is somewhere around 1.5 quarts per pound.

Grains Amount Percent
Maris Otter 0.57 kg 68%
Flaked Barley 0.17 kg 20%
Roasted barley 0.10 kg 12%
Hops Amount Boil Time IBUs
Nugget  6 g 50 min 40

All batches were mashed at 68 °C for an hour.  My 4 gallon brew pot fits into my oven which is easier to control than using a propane burner.  It’s not perfect – my oven’s lowest setting is about 76° C – so I have to monitor the mash temperature with a remote probe and turn the oven off and on a few times during the one hour mash.  Still it was pretty worry free.

I made three separate “brew-in-a-bag” mashes.  The first batch was brewed in the normal manner, all grains mashed together.  The main mash of the next two batches consisted of only the base malt and the flaked barley.  For the second batch I added about 300 grams of water to the roasted barley and let it steep cold, overnight.  About a cup of liquid was drawn from this and added to the wort after mashing was complete.  For the third batch I  added the roast barley just prior to the end of the mash.  I did not write down exactly how long it was in the mash, maybe 3 to 5 minutes at most.

The first full mash achieved an extraction efficiency of 85%; the second two mashes were about 75%.  That is a pretty huge difference but until I can repeat the experiment I am not going to claim it as significant, merely interesting.  All three batches were 2.7 kg in the fermenter and pitched with 2.5 grams of Safale US05 dry yeast.  Thirty seconds of pure oxygen was also added after pitching.  Note I pitched the dry yeast directly on the wort.  While not really a best practice, I felt it would lend the best chance for consistency among the batches.

Interestingly all three batches ended at the same terminal gravity of 3.1 °P (1.012), so that the cold steep batch ended at a slightly lower ABV than the other two.

See Much Difference?

See Much Difference?

But the real question is:  how did they taste? And the simple answer is not much different at all.  The color of the foam on the fully mashed batch was ever so slightly darker than the other two, but the taste differences were simply nil.

My take away from this experiment is: do what works for you.  If your water is naturally high in alkalinity then a full mash with dark grains may be the simplest approach.  If your water is more balanced and you don’t want to fuss with mineral additions then by all means mash your pale grains first and let the starch conversion happen at the correct pH before adding your dark grains.  And if you are like me you can just make a quick water salt adjustment for the dark mashes.

Punkin’ Muffins

Punkin' Muffins

I am not a particular fan of pumpkin beers.  They are fine and all, I just think most of the character comes from spices, not pumpkin.  However I find pumpkin makes a very nice breakfast muffin, and this morning I decided to whip up a quick batch.  If you want to read about beer, skip to another post.

One skill I have developed to a degree, after years of brewing and baking, is the ability to create my own recipes.  Sure I may peruse a few for ideas, but in this case I sat down and imagined my own.  It started with of pumpkin puree.  We usually have some home roasted pumpkin in the freezer.  It is pretty easy to do, just slice open the pumpkin and remove the seeds (roasted pumpkin seeds, yum!) and then roast until nice and tender.  We put measure ours into 2 cup increments and freeze for future occasions.

When baking quick breads, Alton Brown always talks about the wet team and the dry team.  The nice thing about pumpkin is that it is a little of both.  I used it on the wet team, as it allows you to mix it up and disperse it in the liquid.  Here is the wet team I came up with:

Pumpkin puree 1 cup
Buttermilk 1 cup
Skim Milk 1/4 cup
Butter 3/4 stick
1 Large Egg 75 ppm
Light Brown Sugar 3/4 cup packed
Vanilla 1 tsp

The dry team:

All Purpose Flour 1 cup
Whole Wheat Flour 1/2 cup
Brown Rice Flour 1/2 cup
Baking Powder 1 tsp
Baking Soda 1/4 tsp
Salt 1 tsp

I found the brown rice flour in the cupboard. I am not sure what we bought it for or when we bought it, but I saw this as an excuse to use it up.  I expect it would not contribute gluten, which is something you don’t really want in a quick bread.

The thing we have not talked about was spices and other additives.  I actually made a double batch, adding chocolate chips to one batch and raisins to the other.   Both batches got some chopped pecans, though I wish I would have lightly roasted them first. Of course the heart of pumpkin is the spices: cinnamon, ginger, clove, allspice, nutmeg.  Here is where I wish I had a do-over.  I mixed a quarter teaspoon of fresh ground cloves, ginger, and allspice.  I grated some fresh nutmeg and added about 2 teaspoons of cinnamon.  I split this between the two batches.  It was not enough, really.  The next time I make these I will need to revisit this.

Despite the lack of bold spice goodness, enjoying a warm, freshly baked bread on a fall weekend morning is a real pleasure.

What to Wear ? (Part 3)

Part 1 and 2 of this series highlighted beers that I brewed for an upcoming beer tasting.  The first two beers were a Russian Imperial Stout and a Saison, both good styles for tasting as they have distinct and robust flavors that will stand out after one has sampled other beers.  I decided to make a third beer just in case one of the first two did not turn out as expected (and who knows I might just take all three to the tasting).  My choice for the third beer was a Kölsch. This style is much more mild in flavor than the other two, but I had just brewed one earlier in the summer and it turned out to be exceptionally good, so I thought it was worth presenting.

The BJCP style descriptor says a Kolsch should have “soft, rounded palate comprising of a delicate flavor balance between soft yet attenuated malt, an almost imperceptible fruity sweetness from fermentation, and a medium-low to medium bitterness with a delicate dryness and slight pucker in the finish (but no harsh aftertaste)”. Descriptions such a that really put me off because I do not think the words convey much at all about the flavor. While many who try a Kolsch simply write it off as another light flavored lager, I feel it has a subtle and  distinct flavor that is difficult to describe.  For me it is the flavor of a white Italian bread crust, rich with the flavor of grain but not heavy with bread notes. It has a slight sweetness that adds to the pleasantness of the beer.  Much like riding a bike, once you taste it you cannot forget it.  I have been fortunate that business has taken me to Köln on more than one occasion and I have had the chance to sample Früh, Sion, Gilden and Dom Kölsches (and maybe a few others I forgot). Köln is a wonderful place to visit, go there if you can.

The Big K II

Grains Amount Percent
Pilsener Malt (Weyermann) 3.68 kg 92%
Light Wheat Malt 0.20 kg 5%
Acidulated Malt 0.12 kg 3%
Hops Amount Boil Time IBUs
German Tradition (6.5% AA) 25 g 60 min 18
German Tradition (6.5% AA) 8 g 10 min 2
Original Gravity 12.2º P (1.049)
Final Gravity 1.3º P (1.013)
Apparent Attenuation 73%
Estimated ABV 4.6%

I mashed in at 66 °C but the mash settled to 63 °C at thirty minutes.  I raised it back up with the heat stick and let the mash go for one hour total before raising the temperature to 70 °C and mashing out.  I added calcium chloride, epsom salt, and baking soda to the mash, but only such that the final count was 80 ppm calcium, 44 ppm sodium, 115 ppm chloride and 89 ppm sulfate.

The yeast selected was Wyeast 2565, Kölsch.  Selecting the correct yeast is critical to achieving the correct flavor profile, and based on my effort with this style earlier in the summer this yeast delivers the goods.  I made a one liter starter from a very fresh pack of yeast and ended up with about 100 ml of slurry, which I estimate is about 200 billion cells.  Based on what I know about yeast that is a good number for a 19 liters (5 gallon) of 12 plato beer.  I cooled the wort to 16 °C before pitching and let the temp rise to 18 °C for the commencement of fermentation.  I raised the temperature 0.5 °C per day until it reached 20 °C.  I I further allowed it to rise to 22  °C to assure good diacetyl clean up.  Post fermentation it went into a fridge at 5 °C for some cold aging.  ideally this would age for 4 to 6 weeks, but it will only have 3 weeks before the tasting.  Hopefully it will be OK.

What to Wear ? (Part 2)

I mentioned in an earlier post that I was invited to participate in a craft beer tasting promoted by the local community foundation. That post detailed the Russian Imperial Stout that I made as the first beer for the tasting. The second beer selected for the show is a Saison, a style that has become very popular in the last five years. I love my Saison with rye malt, so I sent back to the well and used my basic Saison recipe:

Grains Amount Percent
Pilsener Malt (Weyermann) 2.75 kg 47%
Vienne Malt 1.10 kg 19%
Flaked Wheat 1.10 kg 19%
Malted Rye 0.60 kg 10%
Lyle’s Golden Syrup 0.24 kg 4%
Hops Amount Boil Time IBUs
East Kent Goldings 30 g 60 min 18
East Kent Goldings 22 g 15 min 7
East Kent Goldings 22 g 5 min 3
Coriander 30 g 0 min 0
Original Gravity 15.6º P (1.064)
Final Gravity 2.3º P (1.009)
Apparent Attenuation 86%
Estimated ABV 7.0%

I mashed in at 67 °C and let it go for an hour.  I added both gypsum and calcium chloride to the mash, partially to help the pH but also to add some minerals to the relatively low mineral western Pennsylvania water.  I even added a bit of sodium chloride. The final water profile was 89 ppm calcium, 64 ppm sodium, 137 ppm chloride and 148 ppm sulfate.  I almost always mash with 3 liters of water per kilogram of grain, which works out to somewhere around 1.5 quarts per pound (for those still using middle age measuring systems).  My mash efficiency was 78%, which is probably due to using a sugar as an adjunct, freeing up water for sparging.  Since I was using a pilsener malt I boiled for 90 minutes.

Wyeast 3711 French Saison is the yeast I prefer for Saisons.  I had to restart a small sample I had retained fr0m earlier in the year.  I worked up the volume by making an 8 liter starter (which I actually hopped and drank, hey, I may be a coward but I am a thirsty little coward).  The fermentation temperature started at 16 °C before allowing it to slowly rise to 25 °C over a week.  I was a little disappointed in the attenuation.  Wyeast 3711 normally gets 90 or 95 percent, this was 86 percent.  A sample tasted during kegging seemed OK, but unless this thing becomes infected it is what I will serve at the tasting.

So I now had two beers ready for the tasting, but it never hurts to have a backup plan and brew a third.  I will cover that one next.

What to Wear ? (Part 1)

I was recently approached by a neighbor from across the street. They happen to be good friends with Southern Tier Brewing Company in New York, and as such they were approached by the community charitable foundation to “help” with a craft beer tasting fundraiser. And by help I mean they wanted to get Southern Tier to participate.  Somehow the topic of home brewing came up and the organizers of the fundraiser were interested in having a few homebrewers serve, too.  With that my neighbor suggested my name and of course being humbled I could not refuse the offer (there is always an upside to giving neighbors home brew).

Talking with the organizers, they were looking for about 150 servings of a couple of beers, which works pretty well with a 5 gallon corny keg.  They left it up to me to decide what to bring.  My first thought was my saison, as it has won a gold medal in the local competition as s generally liked by those who try it.  What about a second beer?  I recent made a very delicious Kolsch style beer, but I was concerned that the light flavor of a Kolsch would not stand up well to the strongly flavored beers one might find at a craft beer tasting.  I thought about an IPA or such, but no recipe I had really jumped out as being interesting.  Then it hit me: a Russian Imperial Stout!  A well made RIS will easily stand up to any other beer that it is served with.  One challenge is that these beers stand up to aging very well, and often are better after weeks and even months of aging.  I had to get busy.

I had recent made a RIS and entered it into the local TRASH competition where it scored just OK.  It was criticized for not being “imperial” enough, which surprised me as I thought it had great flavors.  What flavors should it have?  The BJCP guidelines call for flavors that are complex and intense: roasted grains, fruity esters, hop bitterness, chocolate, cocoa, and or strong coffee.  Jamil Zainasheff recommends combinations of three roasted and three caramel grains to achieve these flavors. In my first attempt I used roasted barley and two types of chocolate malts for roastiness and caramunich, Special B , and Crystal 160 for the caramel malts.  All together, the specialty malts comprised about 20% of the grain bill.  Not “imperial” enough?  Well then, up the ante to 23% as shown below:

The Rus’ II

Grains Amount Percent
Munton’s Maris Otter 7.23 kg 77%
CaraMunich Malt (48L) 0.32 kg 3%
Special B (147L) 0.40 kg 4%
Crystal 160 0.32 kg 3%
Roasted Barley 0.56 kg 6%
Belgian Chocolate Malt (347L) 0.30 kg 3%
Kiln Coffee Malt 0.30 kg 3%
Hops Amount Boil Time IBUs
Nugget (13.5% AA) 70 g 60 min 68
Columbus (13.9% AA) 20 g 5 min 4
Original Gravity 21.0º P (1.087)
Final Gravity 6.1º P (1.024)
Apparent Attenuation 72%
Estimated ABV 8.1%

The new addition to the grain bill is the Kiln Coffee Malt, a product I saw advertised by Northern Brewer. It has a great roasted coffee aroma, hopefully it does the job here. I mashed at a moderate temperature (65 to 66 °C) but used my heat stick to get that to 70 °C at the end of a 70 minute mash.  I added 10 grams of chalk (CaCO3) and 3 grams of baking soda (NaCO3) to the mash to compensate for the dark roasted grains.  I also added 3 grams of calcium chloride as the local water is low in both calcium chloride ions.  I batched sparged and achieved 70% overall brewhouse efficiency, not bad with a 20°P beer. I boiled for 75 minutes.

This batch was fermented with 20 grams of Safale US-05 yeast, rehydrated and pitched with pure oxygen. US-05 is a workhorse and it is so easy to use in dry form I am not sure why anyone would want to mess with liquid cultures. The 72% attenuation is lower than normal, but this was a very strong beer with lots of specialty malts so I am not dismayed by that performance.

This beer has been sitting cold (5 °C) for almost four weeks, it will be six by the time the tasting arrives.  That should be about right if I have done my job correctly.

Genesee Ted

The Cream Ale should be one of those despicable styles, sort of like Light American Lager.  It often starts with six row barley, that scorn of malts popularized by the large purveyors of dastardly American mega-swill.  Adjuncts such as corn and sugar are key ingredients. Hop bitterness and flavor levels approach the average offensive output of the Cleveland Browns. On the surface, this beer seems to offer little interest to the modern home brewer.

And yet, much like the Kölsch, the Cream Ale is a style that many brewers embrace.  Yeah, the standard ingredients are nondescript, but together they can create a beer that is subtle yet flavorful.  It can be successfully shared with craft beer newbies and those less adventurous beer drinkers.  The grainy and sweet corn flavor combines with full malt and a lightly fruity malt profile to create a beer much like a classic English bitter: flavorful enough to enjoy without demanding your full attention.

My approach to this beer is simplicity.  I just brewed this style for the third time and I am looking forward to a beer I can share.  For this iteration I skipped the six row barley (because I had plenty of pilsner malt) but stuck with my usual malt bill: 75% base malt, 20% flaked maize, and 5% caravienne malt.  This gives a beer that is a gorgeous gold color with a light sweetness from the corn and richness added by the caravienne.  I mashed at my usual loose 3 liters per kilogram of grain. I mashed for an hour, starting at 67 °C and letting it fall to 65 °C over 25 minutes before raising the mash to 68 °C for the duration of the mash.

I boiled for 90 minutes, adding 13 grams of Nugget hops at 60 minutes and another 13 grams at 5 minutes, for an IBU level I estimated at 22.  The wort finished at 12.8 °P or 1.052.  I cooled to 19 °C and pitched one pack of Safale US-05 yeast (11.5 grams).  This US-05 is a great all around yeast, I am not sure why anyone would want to mess around with a liquid version when this is so easy to use.  I raised the fermentation temperature about 1 °C on the second and fourth day of fermentation.  Tonight I checked the finishing gravity and found it to be 2.1 °P (1.008) for an apparent attenuation of 85% and an estimated ABV of 5.9%.

I will move this beer straight from the primary to a keg and a bottling bucket, targeting about 2.6 or so volumes of CO2 in the finished beer.  If all goes well in a few weeks I will have a beer that I can share, without fear, with any beer drinker out there.

So Was Red…

“The Shawshank Redemption” is one of my all time favorite movies.  Who can resist a story where the bad guys get what is coming to them, and the good guys overcome adversity and achieve personal peace?  The movie is full of memorable scenes, but today I am thinking of the scene in which the character Red looks up at the carving made by his old friend Brooks and says “Get busy living or get busy dying, that’s goddamn right”.  You’ve  probably seen the movie and you know what Red carves on the wall…

An inspiration for my second sour beer, this time a try at a Flanders Red Ale.  This style of beer, represented by classic styles such as la Folie and Rodenbach Gran Cru, can be wonderfully complex.  However achieving that quality of beer often entails long fermentation in casks and blending of two or more different bathes.  Much more complex than anything I want to try, at least for my second sour.  No, my attempt  will be much more simple: make a suitable wort and dump in on the dregs of my Berliner Weisse yeast.

So here is the recipe and some fermentation details:

Grains Amount Percent
Weyerman Pilsener Malt 1.56 kg 43%
Weyerman Vienne Malt 1.56 kg 43%
Weyerman Special B 0.14 kg 4%
CaraMunich 0.14 kg 4%
Flaked Wheat 0.10 kg 3%
Chocolate Malt 0.10 kg 3%
Hops Amount Boil Time IBUs
Fuggles (whole) 35 g 70 min 18
Original Gravity 13.7º P (1.056)
Final Gravity 2.1º P (1.008)
Apparent Attenuation 86%
Estimated ABV 6.4%

The color on this works out to about 18 SRM, a little dark, but hey this is mostly for fun and adventure anyway.  I was impressed with how well the Berliner Weisse yeast attenuated.  Now the waiting begins…

Ich bin ein Berliner!

I have been brewing a fair amount and have a pretty good stockpile of beers made, so it is a good chance to make a beer that might take a few months to mature. Lpus I had been wanting to try some type of sour beer.  Earlier this year I had order a package of Wyeast 3191 Berliner Weisse with the intent of doing that. It just took me longer to get around to making it than I expected.

I order three yeast packs through a popular mail order outlet last summer.  I know that ordering live yeast in hot weather might be a little dicey – but the company I order from has a good reputation and even sent the yeast wrapped in cold packs.  Unfortunately it was several months before I got around to using the yeast.  All of the yeast packs were a little slow to start.

The Berliner Weisse yeast pack was the last one used.  I smacked it on a Wednesday.  After five days I was pretty sure it was dead; the pack was still flat.  Slowly, though, it began to swell and ten days later it was obvious that something was going on.  In the spirit of ‘relax, don’t worry’ I decided to plow ahead with my Berliner plan.

The Berliner Weisse is an odd duck.  The BJCP guidelines call for an original gravity of 1.028 to 1.032, and IBUs from 3 to 8.   It is hard to believe that a beer made to those specifications would be compelling.  Researching the preparation of a Berliner Weisse turned up more odd practices, such as mash hopping and no boiling.  Based on all of the information I found, here is how I brewed:

The style description suggests a grist of 50% malted wheat; I went with 40%.  There was no good reason for that choice, just a brewer’s decision.  I decided to take a no sparge for this recipe. While these are less efficient at rinsing the grain, with such a low gravity beer the loss in efficiency is no big deal.  Also I was trying to see how quickly I could knock this batch out, and not sparging saves some time.  And while a decoction mash is considered typical for this style, I know that is more trouble than it is worth.  But I did want to do a multi temperature mash, and the extra water gave me the opportunity to do some effective boiling water infusions.

I started the mash at 60 °C at let it rest for 15 minutes.  I added boiling water to bring the mash to 67 °C, then added hops.  I let it go for another 45 minutes or so before adding the remaining water and sparging.  I ended up with about 13 liters of wort at 8.0 °P.  I brought this up to a bare simmer before killing the heat and chilling.

Since the yeast started slow I just used added the whole smack pack to the wort and fermented at 21 °C.  It was slow to start, taking more than 24 hours to show up with bubbles in the airlock, but once it went, it went.  After one week I transferred the beer to a 3 gallon carboy.  It was cloudy and pale, it tasted fermented but no sour notes.

So now we wait. How long?  We will see. These things take time, you know.

Grains Amount Percent
Weyerman Pilsener Malt 1.21 kg 60%
Weyermann Light Wheat Malt 0.81 kg 40%
Hops Amount Boil Time IBUs
Fuggles (whole) 39 g 1 min ??
Original Gravity 8.0º P (1.032)
Final Gravity 1.5º P (1.006)
Apparent Attenuation 81%
Estimated ABV 3.4%

Dortmunder

I had made 167 batches of beer over 15 years without once trying to make a Dortmunder Export lager.  The BJCP lumps this style into Category 1, Light Lagers.  It shares this space with such classic styles as Coors Light, Budweiser, and Miller Genuine Draft.  While this is not exactly the stellar space of the beer category list, the Dortmunder Export is made without rice adjuncts like its American cousins, and the hop bitterness is much more evident.  A respectable light lager.

Whenever I decide to brew a style that I haven’t brewed before, I usually begin in the BJCP style guidelines.  The guidelines suggest “minerally water with high levels of sulfates, carbonates, and chlorides, German or Czech noble hops, Pilsner malt, German lager yeast”. Of course the most interesting aspect of that description is the “minerally water”.

Do a search on Dortmund water, and you can find a wide range of reported values for the ions.  Mostly you find high levels of calcium and sulfate.   Dig a little deeper, and things can get cloudy.  An email exchange with a DAB brewer suggest the Germans actually use much softer water.  After listening to Jamil Zainasheff’s brewing network show suggested that little water treatment is required.  In the end, I added 1 teaspoon of calcium chloride and one quarter teaspoon of calcium sulfate to my mash. By calculation this brought my calcium up to 77 ppm with chloride and sulfate balanced at about 95 ppm.

Malt-wise, I had two Briess malt I chose to use in lieu of the traditional European pilsner malt.  I did have a little Weyermalt sitting around, I only used it to get rid of it.  The Munich malt added a bit of color, the melanoidin malt to add some richness.

Grains Amount Percent
Briess US Two Row 2.78 kg 74%
Weyermann Pilsener Malt 0.52 kg 14%
Weyerman Munich (Light) 0.39 kg 10%
Melanoidin Malt 0.10 kg 2%
Hops Amount Boil Time IBUs
German Tradition (6.5% AA) 36 g 60 min 33
Original Gravity 12.5º P (1.050)
Final Gravity 3.8º P (1.015)
Apparent Attenuation 70%
Estimated ABV 4.8%

For yeast I used Wyeast 838, Southern German Lager.  This particular pitch of yeast was problematic from the beginning.  I had about 100 ml of solids which is probably about 200 to 250 billion cells.  Based on the recipe size and the gravity I figured I needed at least 300 billion.  To move things along I pulled 3.5 liters of wort (about a gallon) and crash cooled it while the balance of the wort chilled.  I pitched my starter into this wort to give it a little head start.  The results were just so-so.  The final apparent attenuation was 70%, which falls into the average advertised range for this yeast (68% to 76%), but on the low side.  I fermented at 10 to 11 °C for one week, then raised the temperature to 16° for a couple of days.  I lagered at 2 to 3 °C  for 5 weeks before tapping.

Taste? Since this was a new style for me I wanted to compare to some classic styles.  More on that later.

RyePA (a.k.a. 99° IPA)

I used rye malt for the first time this year in my award winning Saison, and I do believe the spicy flavor it added made that beer the standout it was.  I felt the rye’s spicy flavor could add complexity to an IPA.  I had purchased a variety of American hops so it was just a matter of coming up with a recipe.

American IPAs can be wonderful things – an exciting aroma couple with a substantial hop bitterness and an overlay of spicy, citrusy, piney hop aroma. Or they can be a muddled mess.  It just depends.  But most brewers agree it is all about the hops, the malt bill should be pretty simple and the yeast non aggressive.  So I went with a major portion of US two row at the base, a couple of crystal malts, and a slug of rye:

Grain

Brand

Color (°L)

Percent by Weight

Two Row Malt

Briess

1.8

82%

Crystal Malt

Briess

10

5%

Crystal Malt

Briess

60

5%

Rye Malt

Unknown

3.5

8%

Hops

% AA

Weight (g)

Boil Time (min)

Summit

17.6

14

55

Centennial

8.7

28

10

Columbus

13.9

28

10

Simcoe

12.2

28

0

Amarillo

9.3

30

0

Centennial

8.7

12

Dry

Simcoe

12.2

12

Dry

Amarillo

9.3

12

Dry

Original Gravity

17.2°P or 1.071

Final Gravity

2.6°P or 1.010

Estimated IBUs

59

Estimated ABV

7.9%

Estimated Color

11 SRM

Mashed for 100 minutes at 65.6°C and boiled for 60 minutes.

Pitched one package (about 11 grams) of Safale US-05 dry yeast.  The yeast was rehydrated in warm water prior to pitching.  Added 75 seconds of pure oxygen through a stone. Pitched yeast at 19°C and held at that temperature for 3 days. On day three set the controller to 21°C and let the temperature rise naturally to that temperature. After ten days in primary the beer was dry transferred to a corny keg and dry hopped for 11 days, the transferred to final packaging (bottles and a corny keg).

It was a hot, hot summer day in Western PA when I brewed this beer, hence the 99 degree moniker.  Despite the extended primary and eleven days of dry hopping the beer was still on tap a mere 21 days after brewing.  And what a beer it is. The hop aroma is piney. The flavor consists of a piney/orange/tangerine quality from the hops, along with a earthy spiciness from the rye, I think.  The bitterness and graininess really work well together.

I think it is a wonderfully complex IPA that will grab your attention.